Welcome to Environmental Studies 461: “Hatchet and Seed” – Tools of Political Ecology. This course introduces you to key concepts, debates, and analytical tools in political ecology. We begin from the premise that all environmental “problems” are political: how they unfold, how they affect people, and the stories we tell about them are all a product of contestation and struggle. In this course, you will examine some of these contestations, their effects, and the responses to them..